Experts elaborated the following recommendations of defensive driving in 4 × 4 vehicles in the three different road types: sand, mud and gravel.
The coarse grain type sandy road, which does not compact easily and, usually does not support the weight of the vehicle. With this, the road must be carefully taken to avoid sinking. The tire pressure must be lowered before riding through the sand and depending on the vehicle, deck and the condition of the sand, the appropriate pressure varies between 15 and 23 pounds. It is recommended to start releasing 30% or 40% of inflation recommended by the manufacturer. Finally, before driving on the sand you must connect the double traction, in this way, the power of the engine is divided between the four wheels: two will pull and two will push, reducing the possibility of the tires skid on this type of ground. All the maneuvers that you make must be progressive and soft.
Recommendations to drive in the sand :
* Before climbing a dune is essential to recognize the terrain. Make sure there are no vehicles or pedestrians on the other side and pay attention to cut dunes.
* To climb a dune you must do it in a straight line. Never approach it diagonally or sideways because the lateral inclination could cause the overturn. It is recommended to make short gears (2nd or 3rd) with a steady acceleration and without operating the clutch pedal. To lower it do the same without accelerating or tightening the clutch.
* If you perceive that the 4 × 4 begins to sink, you should not accelerate. It is best to turn back and try to take the road with more inertia.
* To brake you must do it with the engine of the vehicle. The brake must be used only in situations that require it.
* Do not walk through the water as the grounds are soft and it is very likely that the vehicle will fit.
* Regarding the speed, to drive to less than 50 km / hour due to the low pressure of the covers and the type of terrain. Avoid sudden maneuvers or closed turns. All terrains offer surprises, and an unforeseen event such as stones, boreholes, a motorcycle or a person crossing the road can cause a sudden change of direction and cause a skid with the risk of disbanding a tire.
* If the vehicle is jammed and there is another one that could help you, you must do it from a compact terrain pulling your vehicle with a sling until uncoupling it. In the event that there is no one to help you, you can help with a shovel or an unblocking plate. When you leave the sand, do not forget to inflate the tires again to go to the asphalt. Although it is possible to roll a few kilometers with low pressure this should be done at very low speed to prevent the rubber from getting hot and causing deformations or breakage of the internal metal meshes.